Glycolysis (Part 1)
The word glycolysis means “splitting of sugar”
A molecule of glucose is degraded in a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions to yield two molecules of the three-carbon compound pyruvate (Oxidation of glucose to pyruvate).
Site of occurrence: Cytosol
Other name: Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP pathway)
- Glycolysis is unique that it can function either aerobically or anaerobically depending on the availability of oxygen and electron transport chain.
- Glycolysis is a universal pathway used by nearly all of the organisms on earth as a part of their metabolism.
- The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is an ancient metabolic pathway. It was probably one of the earliest metabolic pathways to evolve.
- Glycolysis is the first pathway used in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cellular metabolism.
- Erythrocytes and cells which lack mitochondria are completely reliant on glucose as their metabolic fuel and metabolize it by anaerobic glycolysis.
The glycolytic pathway can be separated into two phases:
- The Preparatory/Investment Phase – wherein ATP is consumed (Step 1 to step 5))
- The Pay Off Phase – wherein ATP is produced (step 6 to step 10)
The breakdown of the six-carbon glucose into two molecules of the three-carbon pyruvate occurs in ten steps.
Overall reactions of glycolytic pathway
Refer the following link for detailed explanation on each step of the glycolytic pathway.